Richland Soil and Water

Pond in Winter

Pond Types

  • Embankment Ponds Open or Close

    Embankment PondEmbankment ponds are more common in areas with moderate to steep sloping terrain. They are created by building a dam or embankment between two hillsides to collect and hold water from overland runoff. The pond bottom and dam must be made up of soils that prevents excess seepage. Embankment ponds should not be built by damming permanent flow streams, no matter what size they are. Small steams are a source for silt, sediment, debris, excess nutrients, and undesirable fish, all of which can degrade water quality and reduce chances of good fishing. 

  • Dugout or Excavated Ponds Open or Close

    Dugout PondDugout or excavated ponds are constructed in areas of flat or gently sloping land not suited for ponds with dams. As the name implies, dug ponds are created by removing soil and allowing water to fill in the dugout area. Most of the water supply comes from ground water seepage or natural springs. Soils are usually made up of materials that allow free movement of water through the pond bottom.

Pond Components

  • Dam or Embankment Open or Close

    Dam or EmbankmentA barrier constructed out of soil across a watercourse or natural drainage area to permanently impound, trap or store water.

  • Spillway Open or Close

    A pathway for excess water to exit a pond or lake. Spillways are designed to maintain the water level under normal inflows from snow melt, spring flow and rain. They are also called overflows. There are two types of spillways: Principal and Emergency.

    Principal
    Principal SpillwayThe principal spillway is responsible for maintaining the pond water at a desired level. Whenever water enters the pond and the level rises, water first exits the pond through this spillway. They are typically constructed out of pipe (metal, plastic or concrete) or any type of concrete structure.
    Emergency
    Emergency SpillwayThe emergency spillway is responsible for protecting the dam. Whenever so much water enters the pond and the principal spillway cannot carry it all out of the pond, the emergency spillway provides a stable pathway for the excess water to flow around and not over the top of the dam. If water were to flow over the top of the dam, it can begin to erode the structure quickly causing a total dam failure and potentially causing significant property damage downstream.
  • Core Trench Open or Close

    Core TrenchA trench constructed in the undisturbed foundation soil under a dam or embankment. It is constructed in a way to stop water from seeping beneath the dam.

  • Pool Area Open or Close

    Pool AreaAll of the land area that will be under water after the dam and spillways are constructed.